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By Alan Campbell Wares

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Extra resources for A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism

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The phonemic system is similar to that of Cocopa, with the exception that the retroflexed stop and spirant, and the unpalatalized lateral, are lacking in Diegueño. The glottal stop is posited only tentatively as a phoneme here. Since it occurs initially in many words, before both consonants and vowels, its occurrence seems to be a function of the prosodie features of the language. For instance, it appears initially in ''asá· 'bird', but is lacking in sawál 'feather', in which the first element is evidently the same morpheme, but the primary stress is now on the added morpheme wàl (cf.

These irregularities of patterning in the sets of sound correspondences are not phenomena of sporadic, random sound change. Studies in comparative and historical linguistics indicate that sounds in the same environment tend to change regularly, and where there areapparentexceptions to theruleof regular sound change, other factors are involved. Analogous change and borrowing are two major causes of irregular sound change. In languages that have not been recorded until recent times, it is often a major problem to decide what factor has been operative in particular changes, and when a careful study of environment fails to disclose the reason for a deviation from the regular pattern of change, we can only surmise that the elusive factor is borrowing or analogical change.

Tooth', ydki 'cradle' ; medially in kiyâ'y 'grey hair', cimyúl 'ant' ; finally in yiwdy 'heart', haWúy 'nine'. Bilabial /w/ occurs initially in wv' 'stone', wâ' 'house'; medially in luwd' 'wife', kuwi' 'dove' ; finally in kwdw 'maternal grandfather', skäw 'egg'. Walapai has five vowel phonemes. High and mid vowels are normally pronounced with an open articulation. Phonotactic patterns indicate that stressed vowels in unextended root forms do not occur initially or finally, but are always preceded by a glottal stop or other consonant.

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