Download A Grammar of the Multitude: For an Analysis of Contemporary by Paolo Virno PDF

By Paolo Virno

Globalization is forcing us to reconsider a few of the different types -- reminiscent of "the people" -- that routinely were linked to the now eroding country. Italian political philosopher Paolo Virno argues that the class of "multitude," elaborated by way of Spinoza and for the main half left fallow because the 17th century, is a better software to investigate modern concerns than the Hobbesian thought of "people," preferred by way of classical political philosophy. Hobbes, who detested the inspiration of multitude, outlined it as shunning political solidarity, resisting authority, and not stepping into lasting agreements. "When they insurgent opposed to the state," Hobbes wrote, "the electorate are the multitude opposed to the people." however the multitude isn't only a unfavorable idea, it's a wealthy idea that permits us to learn anew plural reports and types of nonrepresentative democracy. Drawing from philosophy of language, political economics, and ethics, Virno exhibits that being international, "not-feeling-at-home-anywhere," is a that forces the multitude to position its belief within the mind. In end, Virno means that the metamorphosis of the social structures within the West over the last 20 years is resulting in a paradoxical "Communism of the Capital."

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Additional resources for A Grammar of the Multitude: For an Analysis of Contemporary Forms of Life (Semiotext(e) / Foreign Agents)

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709). In other words: the tasks of a worker or of a clerk no longer involve the completion of a single particular assignment, but the changing and intensifying of social cooperation. Please allow me to digress. The concept of social cooperation, which is so complex and subtle in Marx, can be thought of in two different ways. There is, first of all, an "objective" meaning: each individual does different, specific, things which are put in relation to one another by the engineer or by the factory foreman: cooperation, in this case, transcends individual activity; it has no relevance to the way in which individual workers function.

The general intellect, or public intellect, if it does not become a republic, a public sphere, a political community, drastically increases forms of submission. To make the point clear, let us think about contemporary production. The sharing of linguistic and cognitive habits is the constituent element of the post-Fordist process of labor. All the workers enter into production in as much as they are speaking-thinking. This has nothing to do, mind you, with "professionality" or with the ancient concept of "skill" or "craftsmanship": to speak/to think are generic habits of the human animal, the opposite of any sort of specialization.

Now, where are these techniques and procedures created, if not in the culture industry? The culture industry produces (regenerates, experiments with) communicative procedures, which are then destined to function also as means of production in the more traditional sectors of our contemporary economy. This is the role of the communication industry, once postFordism has become fully entrenched: an industry of the means of communication. 7. Virtuosity in the workplace Virtuosity, with its intrinsic political dimension, not only characterizes the culture industry but the totality of contemporary social production.

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