By Zhigeng Fang, Hengwu Wei, Baohua Yang, Sifeng Liu, Ye Chen (auth.), Sifeng Liu, Jeffrey Yi-Lin Forrest (eds.)
This ebook includes contributions by way of many of the major researchers within the zone of gray structures idea and functions. all of the papers incorporated during this quantity are chosen from the contributions bodily awarded on the 2009 IEEE foreign convention on gray structures and clever prone, November eleven – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This occasion used to be together subsidized by way of IEEE structures, guy, and Cybernetics Society, typical technology origin of China, and gray platforms Society of China. also, Nanjing college of Aeronautics and Astronautics additionally invested seriously during this occasion with its direct and oblique monetary and administrative supports.
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1 ‘Nation-State’ Defined A STATE distinguishes itself from other forms of human association, a golf or football club, say. It is a human community with territory and sovereignty. Let us be more specific about these distinctive elements. A state without territory doesn’t exist really. ‘Territory’ implies borders and/or frontiers, depending on whether the lines of demarcation are drawn by nature or man, grounded in some physical discontinuity/qualitative heterogeneity or not (in the first place).
In Model (3), the meaning of minimizing k1 + k 2 is [ωil , ωiu ] as narrow as possible, and ωiu ≥ ωil ∀i ∈ N . δ1 and δ 2 , to make each weight interval yi k2 ≤ xi k1 denotes that satisfying 0 < δ1 < k 2 < δ 2 ≤ k1 , can be interpreted as two adjustment factors, which ensure k 2 > 0 and k 2 < k1 . Usually, we set δ1 < 1 and δ 2 = 1 . Theorem 1. Given the unitized matrix of U with the maximum eigenvalue the maximum value of n n i =1 j =1 λmax , f ( X ) = ∑ (∑ x j uij ) 2 = XU T UX T is λmax , and the optimal solution vector to Model (1) is the unique positive eigenvector of U T U corresponding to λmax .
Song and X. Yan based interval critical path (DBICP) were given in (Liu and Chen, 1991). The interval critical path in (Chanas and Zielinski, 2002) was defined by an objective target. The interval critical path in (Liu and Chen, 1991) was defined by a subjective target. Since the network activity times are uncertain, total duration is also uncertain in the network schedule (total duration is obviously uncertain in fact). The critical path defined by a single objective is obviously inadequate. The critical path being defined by a multiobjective objective is proposed in this paper, and examples are provided at the end to verify the rationality of this method, which combines subjective factors with objective factors.