By Petra Maria Vogel, Bernard Comrie
The historical past of observe classification learn is characterised through severe positions. as much as the nineteenth century, it used to be believed that notice periods have been at all times of the Latin or Greek style and common. unlike that, within the twentieth century, the view prevailed that each language had its personal particular and exact notice type procedure. within the final a long time, despite the fact that, it has develop into obvious that regardless of the big variety of note sessions and be aware type platforms there are typological regulations in regards to the conceptualization of semantic gains and morphosyntactic buildings. this article methods observe sessions and their categorial manifestations from the point of view of typology and language universals examine. The authors during this quantity talk about observe type categorization generally (Part I), in addition to notice sessions and note type platforms of person languages (Part II) from a typological-universal perspective and from diachronic and cross-linguistic views.
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Additional info for Approaches to the Typology of Word Classes
There are also cases such as Joan wrote the book hungry, where a dependent expresses an additional predication about the subject or object of its head. In this case, functional composition results in a conjoined predicate: 'wrote(x, the-book) &. hungry(x)'. Obviously, then, we need a third move of syntagmatic expansion: H Syntagmatic expansion Construe an expression in predicate function with a dependent predicate expression. 3. Functional licensing As pointed out by Jespersen (1924), part-of-speech distinctions are licensed only by "shallow" positions in a sentence: predicate, subject/object, adverbial, attribute in main clauses.
However, Brondal argues that only four of the categories are really needed, that the other categories can be defined in terms of these four, which are substance (R), relation (r), quantity (D), and quality (d), or, in modern terms, thing, relation, quantity, and property. Tesniere (1959) regards only verb, noun, adjective, and adverb as "full words" (mots pleins), relegating all other words to derivational markers, or "empty words" (mots vides). Chomsky's (1970) revival of Varro's [±case; ±tense] model, with N substituted for case, and V substituted for tense, so that we get noun: [+N; -V], verb: [-N; +V], adjective: [+N; +V], and adposition: [+N; -V], is easily the most influential of these fourcategory models.
Moreover, we note that in Maori, where nouns are not differentiated in predicate and term functions, there is an invariant predicate position which serves to differentiatiate nouns in predicate function and nouns in term function. Indeed, Hengeveld— Rijkhoff—Siewierska (1997) have argued that flexibility in the narrow sense is strongly correlated with easily identifiable predicate positions. A dynamic model ofpart-of-speech differentiation language Bororo Archi predicate V Verb Noun v Verb v Chukchi Finnish Swedish Verb Num Noun V Verb V Verb V V Noun n Verb (n)u(S) Noun n Verb Adposition Num Noun V Verb (n)u(S) n Num Noun n Verb (n)u(S) Noun n Verb H(S) Noun Verb ((S) Verb Adjective Noun Verb Adjective V Verb -v- Noun Verb Verb Noun nu (n) n Kobon Maori Verb n Adposition Noun V Verb (n)S n n u, S n Verb Adjective Noun Ainu Verb Noun Verb Num Noun Noun Nama Yoruba term dependent predicate Noun 35 Verb Noun n -^ Noun Noun Verb ((S) Noun Noun Verb Noun n(S) n V V n Figure 17.