Download Aprendizage y Estructuras del Conocimiento by Bärbel Inhelder, Hermine Sinclair, Magali Bovet PDF

By Bärbel Inhelder, Hermine Sinclair, Magali Bovet

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Ellos ponen el énfasis en las adquisiciones artificiales, no presentes en el desarrollo espontáneo, de manera que todos los sujetos abordan la experiencia sin conocimientos previos, es decir, en condiciones idénticas. Observemos, sin embargo, que desde el momento en que se trata de adquisiciones, por poco complejas que sean, nos en- Introducción 39 contramos a menudo frente a fenómenos que no se pueden explicar únicamente en función de las leyes fundamentales sin hablar de los inobservables, para los cuales estos teóricos invocan mecanismos complementarios, tales como la mediación.

La aportación dinámica del sujeto entra también en juego en lo que concierne a la fuerza de la vinculación obtenida según mecanismos de ajuste entre los estados de necesidad y satisfacción. ) tanto en los hombres como en los animales. Muchos de los teóricos del aprendizaje se aferran al principio empirista de la primacía de lo observable y han intentado elaborar una metodología capaz de poner de manifiesto los mecanismos asociados al estado puro. Ellos ponen el énfasis en las adquisiciones artificiales, no presentes en el desarrollo espontáneo, de manera que todos los sujetos abordan la experiencia sin conocimientos previos, es decir, en condiciones idénticas.

El análisis de las conductas se ha destinado siempre a aclarar la génesis del conocimiento. Sin embargo, nuestra ambición actual de llegar a una teoría constructivista, que captaría los mecanismos del desarrollo y las transiciones entre las conductas jerarquizables, ha nacido de un conjunto de trabajos cada uno de los cuales requiere modos de análisis particulares; nosotros evocamos aquí sus momentos más característicos. Aprendizaje y estructuras del conocimiento 46 Nuestro interés inicial se centraba en la determinación de los vectores de desarrollo que caracterizan la evolución de las explicaciones referentes a la representación del mundo (PIAGET, 1926 y 1927) en el niño *.

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