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Additional info for Assessing Microbial Safety of Drinking Waters: Perspectives for Improved Approaches and Methods

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1-16 Bartram, J. (1998) Effective monitoring of small drinking water supplies. In: Providing Safe Drinking water in Small Systems. , Craun, G. 37 and Hearne, N. ) Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 353366. , Haff, L. M. (1991) Detection of Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. in water using the polymerase chain reaction and gene probes for uid. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57, 1013-1017. T. and Metcalf, T. (1978) Indicators of viruses in waters. In: Indicators of Viruses in Water and Food.

2 Enterococci and faecal streptococci Chain forming gram-positive cocci used to be placed in the genus Streptococcus and faecal streptococci were those streptococci generally present in the faeces of humans and animals. All possess the Lancefield group D antigen. A sub-group of the faecal streptococci, which is relatively tolerant of sodium chloride and alkaline pH, have been grouped under the genus Enterococcus. Most of the Enterococcus species are of faecal origin and can generally be regarded as specific indices of human faecal pollution for most practical purposes.

Information on sources of pollution in the catchment area of abstraction sites gives both an indication of the level of contamination that may be expected and potential risk events (such as heavy rainfall leading to agricultural run-off). A catchment survey will also yield information on opportunities for catchment control. This may not be the domain of water suppliers, but allows them to choose between installing treatment barriers or trying to implement source protection measures. In the design phase, a catchment survey will aid in the selection of the best site for abstraction (Chapter 4).

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