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By Edward A. Birge

The genetics of micro organism and their viruses are basic to fashionable biology. Genetic investigations and manipulations of micro organism and bacteriophage have made very important contributions to our simple realizing of dwelling cells and to the advance of genetic engineering and biotechnology. Bacterial and Bacteriophage Genetics offers scholars with a complete creation to this quickly advancing topic. This fourth version has been broadly revised and reorganized to mirror advances within the box. the entire significant subject matters in sleek bacterial and bacteriophage genetics are awarded, together with: mutations and mutagenesis (including adaptive mutagenesis); genetics of lytic and temperate bacterial viruses; transduction; genetic transformation; conjugation and plasmids; regulatory platforms; recombination and service; chance research in bacterial genetic experiments; utilized simple genetics; evolutionary genetics. This re-creation encompasses a better dialogue of evolutionary matters and comprises challenge units on the ends of every bankruptcy to check scholars' figuring out.

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14. Pulsed field agarose gel. 13a have difficulty separating DNA fragments larger than about 20 kb. If the gel is run using a pulsed field in which the direction of the voltage gradient is switched by rotating the gel through a 90° angle, larger fragments have difficulty reorienting themselves in the agarose and move more slowly than smaller fragments. The gel shown here presents individual chromosomes from two strains of yeast, 252 and Y55, separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The sizes of the chromosomes in kb are indicated where they are known.

The Bacterial Chromosome. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, pp. 445-456. F. (1995). Chromosome partitioning in bacteria. Annual Review of Genetics 29: 41-67. , Sekiguchi, J. (1987). Genetic mapping by means of protoplast fusion in Bacillus subtilis. Molecular and General Genetics 208: 254-262. , and Wright, A. (1997). Chromosome and low copy plasmid segregation in E. coli: Visual evidence for distinct mechanisms. Cell 90: 1113-1121. Levi-Meyrueis, C, Sanchez-Rivas, C (1984). Complementation and genetic inactivation: two alternative mechanisms leading to prototrophy in diploid bacterial clones.

Rhizobium meliloti and Burkholderia cepacia, on the other hand, have three chromosomes each. In some cases ribosomal RNA genes are present on two chromsomes. There are even some examples of bacteria that have linear chromosomes (Casjens, 1998). Prominent among these are Streptomyces codicolor, S. lividans, Rhodococcus fascians and members of the genus Borrelia. Most unusual is Agrobacterium tume}aciens biovar I, which has both a circular chromosome and a linear chromosome. The immediate question, of course, is what happens to the ends of the linear chromosomes.

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