By Richard G. Wax, Kim Lewis, Abigail A. Salyers, Harry Taber
Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA. Examines equipment utilized by micro organism to advance resistance to antimicrobial brokers, and describes innovations that may be utilized to create powerful antibiotics and techniques to reduce the emergence and worldwide unfold of refractory traces. Highlights antibiotic resistance in pathogens posing the best probability to human well-being.
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Extra info for Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials
Long-term, low-dose administration may well be more dangerous in this respect than the short, high-dose regimens normally used in therapy if it gives bacteria the chance to acquire additional mutations that cause a resistance gene to be more stably maintained. Finally, it is becoming clear there is no single ecology of resistance but rather multiple ecologies that may overlap. In one case, a single resistant clone may arise and spread widely. In another case, multiple resistant strains may have arisen on separate occasions as a result of horizontal gene transfer.
Bacteriostatic antibiotics disrupt bacterial multiplication, but the bacteria recover after removal of the antibiotic. As mentioned above, most antibiotic inhibitors of translation (also transcription, replication, or other biosynthetic process) lead to bacterial stasis. As in the case of bactericidal antibiotics, a number of events of DNA metabolism, as well as DNA transactions, can still occur in these states of suspended growth. Therefore, although susceptible bacteria apparently are inhibited by the action of the static drug, there are underlying genetic and biochemical processes taking place that may ultimately overcome growth inhibition.
25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. and modiﬁcation of the plasmid in a Lactobacillus reuteri host. Microbial Ecol Health Dis 1991; 4:343–355. Doucet-Populaire F, Trieu-Cuot P, Andremont A, Courvalin P. Conjugal transfer of plasmid DNA from Enterococcus faecalis to Escherichia coli in the digestive tracts of gnotobiotic mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1992; 36: 502–502. Nikolich M, Hong G, Shoemaker N, Salyers AA. Evidence that conjugal transfer of a tetracycline resistance gene (tetQ) has occurred very recently in nature between the normal microﬂora of animals and the normal microﬂora of humans.