By Patrice Boquet, E. Lemichez
Pathogenic micro organism for human and animals have built subtle guns, termed virulence elements, to make sure their replication and endurance into their hosts. The authors during this quantity convey a synthesis on how a few of the host mobile Rho GTPases actions are manipulated by way of micro organism to fulfil their virulence.
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Extra info for Bacterial Virulence Factors and Rho GTPases (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology)
Cycling between these two states is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which promote GDP dissociation and GTP binding, and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which stimulate the low intrinsic GTPase activity of Rho proteins . In the GTP-bound state, Rho proteins interact with downstream effectors to control actin ﬁlament assembly and organization into complex structures involved in cell shape, motility, and polarity . In particular, at the leading edge of motile cells, Cdc42 and Rac1 regulate actin polymerization to form ﬁlopodia and lamellipodia, respectively, whereas in the cell body RhoA induces assembly of focal adhesions and contractile actin-myosin stress ﬁbers.
Chen, K. E. Schuebel, X. R. Bustelo, and J. E. Galan. 1998. S. typhimurium encodes an activator of Rho GTPases that induces membrane rufﬂing and nuclear responses in host cells. Cell 93:815–26. 18. Hardt, W. , H. Urlaub, and J. E. Galan. 1998. A substrate of the centisome 63 type III protein secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium is encoded by a cryptic bacteriophage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:2574–9. 19. Hayward, R. , and V. Koronakis. 1999. Direct nucleation and bundling of actin by the SipC protein of invasive Salmonella.
44 2 . . . . . . 3 Control of Fcγ R-Mediated Phagocytosis by Rac1/Cdc42 in Macrophages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanism of Rac/Cdc42 Activation During FcR-Mediated Phagocytosis . . . . . . . . Regulation of Actin Dynamics Downstream of Rac/Cdc42 During FcR-Mediated Phagocytosis . . . . . . . . Regulation of Phagosomal Contractility . . . . . . . 3 Phagocytosis Mediated by Other Receptors . . Complement Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis Phagocytosis of Zymosan .