By Ronald E. Santoni
From the start to the top of his philosophizing, Sartre appears to be like to were occupied with "bad faith"—our "natural" disposition to escape from our freedom and to deceive ourselves. almost no element of his huge approach has generated extra awareness. but undesirable religion has been tormented by misinterpretation and false impression. whilst, Sartre's correlative techniques of "good religion" and "authenticity" have suffered overlook or inadequate recognition, or been harassed and wrongly pointed out by way of Sartre students, even through Sartre himself.
Ronald E. Santoni takes at the problem of distinguishing those recommendations, and of revealing even if both or either existential "attitudes" have enough money deliverance from the hell of Sartre's undesirable religion. He bargains the 1st fill-scale research, reconstruction, and differentiation of those methods of present as they strengthen in Sartre's early works (1937-1947).
even if he makes an attempt to redeem Sartre's slighted suggestion of fine religion, Santoni warns that it must never be considered interchangeably with authenticity. extra, in a single of the earliest and so much sustained reports of Sartre's Notebooks for an Ethics to be had in English, Santoni exhibits how Sartre's posthumously released notes for an "ethics of Salvation" determine his differentiation and argument. the way in which out of Sartrean hell, Santoni insists, is authenticity—living "with constancy" to our unjustifiable freedom and assuming accountability for it.
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Extra info for Bad Faith, Good Faith and Authenticity in Sartre's Early Philosophy
This seems to be Sartre's phenomenological description of the ontological structure of consciousness. But when Sartre comes to his discussion of bad faith and sincerity, "being what it is not and not being what it is" seems to take on a different and rather baffling connotation. We are now told that it is in bad faith that "human reality is constituted as a being which is what it is not and which is not what it is. "49 Sartre says, "With bad faith a truth appears ... , the ontological characteristic of the world of bad faith with which the subject suddenly surrounds himself is this: that here being is what it is not, and is not what it is.
This distinction between the is of identity and the is of attribution in respect to these existential attitudes would permit Sartre to maintain that reflection is in good or bad faith-but not itself good or bad Copyrighted Material xxxviii Introduction faith-even though bad faith and good faith are generally viewed by Sartre as non-reflective categories. One could then justifiably attribute bad faith to the will or reflection that effects an inauthentic mode of existing. Second, I suggest that Sartre's core writings would read more coherently if a sharper distinction were drawn between human reality's "primitive project" or "immediate attitude" (or "original attitude") of bad faith (the original non-reflective project of trying to attain self-coincidence or in-itself-for-itself) on the one hand, and the bad faith of secondary choices, deeds, beliefs, and situations on the other.
What makes this step so crucial is that, once placed in the web of Sartre's idiosyncratic system, sincerity is "made" to admit of "family relations" which, in common usage, it would not be said to have. If, as Sartre states, the project and goal of sincerity is "to be what one is," and if "to be what one is" means what Sartre defines it to mean in his characterization of being in-itself (or en-soil, then it does seem to follow that consciousness, in seeking "absolute equivalence" and "self-coincidence," is trying to put itself "out of reach," is Copyrighted Material 12 CHAPTER 1 attempting to escape its freedom in order to constitute itself as thing, and thus, in bad faith, is violating human reality.