Download Basic Flight Physiology by Richard O. Reinhart PDF

By Richard O. Reinhart

This readable, up to date textbook by way of a flight healthcare professional comprehensively covers the standards that have an effect on ``medical airworthiness.'' comprises sensible chapters on facing in-flight clinical emergencies and on protecting flight health with nutrition and workout.

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Blood is essentially cells and a liquid called serum. About 55 percent of blood is serum, and about 90 percent of serum is water. One of the blood cells is a red blood cell, which physically carries oxygen molecules attached to a chemical on the cell called hemoglobin. The comparison of partial pressures and the percentage of hemoglobin saturation is called the dissociation curve (Fig. 2-5). Inadequate oxygen to the cells (hypoxia) will occur when the saturation goes below 72 percent, where the curve drops off quickly with decreasing oxygen partial pressure.

32 Copyright © 2008, 1996, 1992 by Richard O. D. Click here for terms of use. COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE The atmosphere (atmos = vapor) is the gaseous envelope of air that surrounds the earth and extends to about 25,000 miles (40,000 km). It rotates with the Earth and is continuously changing with temperature and pressure. There will be constant parameters and many variables, often occurring in unpredictable situations. From a biological and physiological point of view, however, the composition of the atmosphere is constant.

Gases move across these membranes by the process of diffusion, which lets a gas move from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure (Fig. 2-7). The oxygen, when it reaches the alveoli, has a partial pressure of about 95–100 mm Hg (Fig. 2-8). Within venous blood, the partial pressure Figure 2-8 Alveolar-capillary diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide. 30 Basic human anatomy is 40 mm Hg. Diffusion takes place as long as there is a differential. Carbon dioxide diffuses in the same manner.

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