By John Villadsen, Jens Nielsen, Gunnar Lidén
Integrating fresh learn at the body structure and modelling of bioreactions and bioreactors, the authors current a entire, unified creation to the rules and practices of the sector. The paintings good points approximately a hundred particular layout examples and difficulties, lots of that are compatible for hands-on demonstrations on a private computing device or for multiplied study. The textual content will function a hugely instructive advisor for college kids in bioengineering and biotechnology, in addition to biochemical, chemical, and environmental engineering.
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Additional resources for Bioreaction Engineering Principles
Glucose-6-phosphate ! PhOSPhJte c~ Ribulose 5-phosphate Erythrose 4·phosphate Fructose-l,6·diphosphate ~ Dihydroxy· _ acetone phosphate NADPH ~----t--+-- Xylulose 5·phosphate Glyceraldehyde __- - - - - ' 3·phosphate NAD' j NADH . 6. The EMP and pp pathways. 1. , carbon dioxide, lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol) with concurrent formation of ATP, NADH, and NADPH. NADH is a co-enzyme similar to NADPH. , the oxidative phosphorylation. Most sugars are converted to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) or fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) before being metabolized.
2. Structure of the cellular envelope in gram-negative (a) and gram-positive (b) bacteria. Approximate values for the thickness are given in parenthesis. , 1983). These water-filled channels are used for rapid transmembrane diffusion of sm all hydrophilie molecules, and the outer membrane therefore acts as a molecular sieve. Large moleeules can be transferred to the cell only in exceptional eases mediated by speeifie transport pro teins of largely unknown function. , sugars, amino acids, and most metabolie products) do, however, diffuse freely aeross the outer membrane.
To give a correct description of the glucose uptake it is therefore in principle necessary to include two uptake reactions for glucose. Since G6P is the common intracellular species formed by the two systems it is reasonable to describe the stoichiometry by one reaction. The rate of glucose uptake by the two transport systems can, however, be quite different. Growth of E. coli (and other bacteria) on fructose is more complicated since fructose may be taken up both by a special PTS for fructose and through the PTS n man • By uptake through the first system, fructose-I-phosphate (FI P) is the product, whereas fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) is formed when fructose is taken up by the PTS nman • Since FIP and F6P have different fates in the cell, the fructose uptake must be described by two individual reactions.