Download Chemical Bonds by Phillip Manning PDF

By Phillip Manning

Smooth existence is made of a mind-boggling array of fabrics. an easy ingesting cup, for instance, can be made up of Styrofoam, paper, or glass, reckoning on the drinker's wishes in the interim. domestic garage cupboards could be made up of steel, wooden, or plastic. house shuttles are assembled from silicon, metal, and countless numbers of different fabrics. All of these things owe their homes to the chemical bonds among the atoms that make up the substance. ''Chemical Bonds'' examines the character of the chemical bonds, answering primary questions on how they shape, how they're damaged, and the way they assist outline existence as we all know it.

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42 chemical bonds That part of the answer had to wait until the electron configurations of the elements were known. Then, valence came to mean the number of electrons an atom must lose, gain, or share to get an outermost shell that resembles as closely as possible the outermost shell of the most stable elements, the noble gases. Because all of the noble gases have eight electrons in their outermost shell, chemists came up with the octet rule. This rule states that when atoms undergo chemical reactions, they tend to do so in a way that all of the atoms in the resulting compound have eight electrons in their outer energy shells, even if they have to share some of them.

The shaded areas are regions where an electron is most likely to be found. The last quantum number was proposed to solve a mystery. Emission spectroscopy measures the wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation emitted when an electron in an atom drops from a ­higher-­energy state to a lower one. Spectroscopists noticed that some spectral lines split into two lines when theory predicted that only one should exist. A new quantum property and number were needed to explain spectral splitting. At the time, the electron was considered a particle, and scientists called this new property spin, usually designated as ms.

These questions were not answered until Schrödinger and his colleagues developed wave mechanics. Quantum Numbers Solving Schrödinger’s wave equation led to a set of four quantum numbers. Scientists know now that these quantum numbers determine the energy and spatial distribution of electrons in an atom. The first of these is the principal quantum number. The principal quantum number corresponds roughly to one of Bohr’s circular energy shells. It is related to the average distance of an electron from the nucleus.

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