By Suryadi Ismadji, Felycia Edi Soetaredjo, Aning Ayucitra
A entire evaluate of environmental remediation is gifted with an emphasis at the position of clay minerals in water purification. within the first bankruptcy, vital facets of environmental difficulties and attainable ideas are mentioned. within the moment bankruptcy, the applying of usual clay minerals as environmental cleansing brokers are defined. The dialogue is targeted at the function of other forms of clay fabrics in dangerous substance elimination from air, aqueous options, wastewater, aquaculture, flooring water, and so on. within the subsequent bankruptcy, the amendment of clay fabrics is explored together with the guidance of clay composite fabrics for environmental remediation. numerous elements of clay fabric adjustments and the results of clay floor chemistry at the removing of detrimental fabric can be mentioned. subsequent, the equilibrium and kinetics of damaging substance adsorption is gifted. This bankruptcy summarizes fresh stories at the removing of dangerous components from aqueous ideas and the surroundings utilizing numerous varieties of clay minerals. The short additionally comprises a variety of versions utilized in adsorption reviews and touches at the characterization of clay minerals.
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Additional info for Clay Materials for Environmental Remediation
J. Dispersion Sci. Technol. : Surface charge properties of kaolinite from Thai soils. : Acid green 25 removal from wastewater by organo-bentonite from Pacitan. Appl. Clay Sci. : Adsorption of o-, m- and p-nitrophenols onto organically modified bentonites. J. Hazard. Mater. : Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by native and activated bentonite: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study. J. Hazard. Mater. : Utilization of rarasaponin natural surfactant for organo-bentonite preparation: application for methylene blue removal from aqueous effluent.
Sustain. Energ. : Adsorption of tetracycline (TC) onto montmorillonite: cations and humic acid effects. : Adsorption of high ammonium nitrogen from wastewater using a novel ceramic adsorbent and the evaluation of the ammoniumadsorbed-ceramic as fertilizer. J. Colloid Interface Sci. : Total ammonia nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions by the natural zeolite, mordenite: a laboratory test and experimental study. : Adsorption/desorption and catalytic oxidation of VOCs on montmorillonite and pillared clays.
The modification of clay minerals using acid can alter the crystalline structure of the clay minerals. The clay minerals modified with quaternary ammonium surfactant have a high affinity towards most of hydrophobic organic compounds. Even though the anionic surfactants are cheaper than other types of surfactants, the anionic surfactants are seldom used for clay modification compared to the cationic and nonionic surfactants. Nonionic surfactant organoclays were more chemically stable than cationic surfactant organoclays.