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By Heikki E.S. Mattila

The language of legislation displays the overlapping, competing and co-existing nature of criminal discourse; its shape either the made of its linguistic heritage and a reaction to the fluidity of criminal tradition. This booklet examines criminal language as a language for designated reasons, comparing the services and features of felony language and the terminology of legislations. utilizing examples drawn from significant and lesser criminal languages, it examines the main criminal languages themselves, starting with Latin via German, French and English. each one bankruptcy comprises an historic evaluate of the expansion of the language, its foreign use, its coherence within the a variety of nations utilizing it and its dating to cognate felony languages. the place appropriate, the features of felony cultures are defined to provide an explanation for the good points of the felony language. The paintings may be a precious source for college students, researchers and practitioners within the parts of comparative legislations, felony conception, semiotics, and linguistics.

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By contrast, an opposite trend is perceptible in the international use of Russian, partially, too, in the case of French and German. However, the position of French remains quite strong, notably in Europe (where German is also of considerable importance). The rivalry between French, the classic language of international relations since the 17th century, and English, newly arrived on the scene, is visible in various contexts. The use of the major languages in the frame of the United Nations Organization well illustrates this viewpoint.

This double meaning also Comparative Legal Linguistics 32 appears in modern languages, notably in English and in the romance languages (instrument, strumento, instrumento). It is the legal order that gives the meaning of a speech act to words expressed orally or to a signed document: in this way, it links rights and obligations to those words or to that document. 1 In the final analysis, it is the supernatural power of the Word that stands in the background of the effects of a speech act. That is clearly visible in the fact that ritual expressions were once of great importance in realizing speech acts: if, in Ancient Rome or in medieval England, the claimant made even a small mistake in reciting the required form of action, then he lost the case.

39 Comparitivists aim, on the one hand, to develop methods for comparing legal cultures and, on the other, to draw conclusions on the basis of differences and similarities found. 40 Comparative law can promote research in legal linguistics in a number of ways. Firstly, comparative lawyers contribute to shedding light on the factors that influence the development of the systems of concepts standing in the background of legal terms. This enables a better understanding of the characteristics of legal terminology.

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