By G. John Stanton, S. Baron (auth.), Abner Louis Notkins M.D., Michael B. A. Oldstone M.D. (eds.)
The present proliferation of clinical details makes it tough for even the main diligent reader to take care of with the most recent advancements in his/her personal box, not to mention different components of curiosity. evaluate articles are one resolution, yet they too became so voluminous and precise that they generally defeat the aim for which they have been meant. we have now tried to ease this challenge through the use of a special layout. during this quantity on ideas in Viral Pathogenesis, we now have assembled a chain of mini-reviews/editorials, 1,000 to 2,000 phrases in size. each one is a pithy distil lation of the state of the art with emphasis on present pondering and unifying innovations instead of a compendium of the literature. The fifty three articles, all written by means of lively staff of their respective fields, are equipped systemati cally in order that the booklet will supply busy investigators, academics and scholars of up to date details in a really short and simply learn a conceptual center capable shape. moreover, the authors have tried to spot unresolved difficulties and aspect to destiny directions.
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Extra info for Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis
Among human LGL, positive self regulation of NK activity by production of IFN in vitro upon infection with influenza and herpes simplex viruses has been proposed . In the presence of virus, IFN production has been attributed solely to LGL, without participation of other cell types. However, in other studies, the producers of IFN have been identified as HLA-DR positive, Fc-receptor posi- Natural Killer Cells in Viral Infection 15 tive, nonadherent, nonphagocytic cells that might only copurify with LGL on Perc oil gradients.
This IFN-independent NK activity is exerted earlier than the IFN-associated cytotoxic activity and is completely abrogated by F(ab')2 fragments of antibodies to viral glycoproteins . The ability ofIFN to induce blast formation, DNA synthesis, and possibly proliferation of NK cells has been demonstrated in vivo in mice . Because IFN in vitro induces expression of IL-2 receptors, it is possible that the in vivo effect ofIFN on NK-cell proliferation is mediated by IL-2. IL-2 itself can indirectly enhance NK activity, and the effects of IFN and IL-2 are synergistic.
Emphasis is placed on those viruses for which cleavage by host proteases has been shown to be a major determinant of virulence. , on paramyxoviruses and myxoviruses [II. Paramyxoviruses This large group of viruses includes the parainfluenza viruses types 1 to 5, mumps, measles, canine distemper, and Newcastle disease viruses. There are two glycoproteins on the surface of paramyxoviruses: HN, which has hemagglutinating (receptor binding) and neuraminidase activities, and F, which is involved in membrane fusion.